PEPPERONI brings together world-leading European experts covering the full PV value chain to bring the technology readiness level (TRL) of perovskite/Si tandems from 4-5 to 7


Tandem technology validated in the lab (HZB). HZB holds several advances and independently certified world record tandem solar cells in the field of perovskite tandem solar cells.


Tandem technology validated in relevant environment (HZB) with industrial metallisation (CSEM) and using mass-production-ready Q.ANTUM bottom cells (Qcells)


PEPPERONI demonstrates tandem technology in relevant environment, especially: tandems based on mass-produced Q.ANTUM bottom cells for  ramp-up; full-area tandem cells/modules based on M10 wafers and dedicated production equipment.


PEPPERONI plans to demonstrate a system prototype in an operational environment through the tandem cell and module pilot line. We plan to demonstrate: products with lifetime potential >30 years & low environmental impact; in-the-field data set acquisition for LCOE calculation and scheme for large-scale manufacturing deployment.


The technology routes to scale tandem cell and module manufacturing to multi-GW level in Europe. The next step for PEPPERONI follow-up initiatives will aim to complete the system.


If key performance indicators for tandem technology and manufacturing are met, the PEPPERONI system might be qualified to enable GW-scale PV module manufacturing.

Overall, perovskite PV technologies reach an average TRL of 4 “technology validated in lab” to 5 “technology validated in relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies)”.

PEPPERONI aims to remove the different scientific, technological and economic barriers on performance, manufacturing and socio-economic aspects hindering the industrial deployment of perovskite/Si tandems. To do so, the project will bring together world-leading European experts covering the full PV value chain to bring the TRL level of perovskite/Si tandems from 4-5 to 7, that is “system prototype demonstration in an operational environment”.


The know-how gained through the development of a suitable bill of materials, manufacturing equipment and processes, a robust supply chain and in-depth analyses of the solar cells and modules produced by this pilot line will open avenues to push the technology to a TRL8-9 in the years to follow the end of the project in 2026.